Rubella

Rubella

Chris Schach

Author Bio -

 Key Points
*Infectious condition which is rare in industrialized nations due to vaccination programs
*Caused by a viral infection
*Cutaneous symptoms consist of a rash of spots, light red or pink in color, on the torso, neck and limbs, which may be accompanied by itching

Rubella, or German Measles, is an infectious condition which is rare in industrialized nations due to implementation of vaccination programs. Cutaneous symptoms consist of a rash of flat, pink or light red spots, which may be preceded by fever, sore throat and a general feeling of unwellness. The rash may persist for up to 5 days, and typically begins on the face, spreading to the neck, torso and limbs. It may also be accompanied by itching, flaking as the rash resolves, and joint swelling or pain. Additionally, glands will be swollen and/or tender, typically on the neck or behind the ears, in the majority of cases. In some cases, the condition may be so mild as to go unnoticed, or the condition may not be accompanied by cutaneous symptoms.

Rubella is a viral infection which is not often seen in industrialized nations, but persists in countries without vaccination programs. The condition is mild and self-resolving in the majority of cases. However, when pregnant women develop the condition, major risk to the fetus exists in the form of congenital Rubella syndrome, which commonly causes major birth defects, miscarriage, or stillbirth.

Differential Diagnosis (Other conditions with similar appearance)
Contact Dermatitis
Mycoplasma Infections
Cytomegalovirus Infection
Parvovirus B19 Infection
Enteroviral Infections
Syphilis
Herpesvirus 6 Infection
Toxoplasmosis
Measles
Mononucleosis
Epstein-Barr virus Infection

 

Diagnosis
Key Points
*Diagnosis based on the characteristic appearance of the affected area in conjunction with clinical examination
*Laboratory testing will be performed to confirm diagnosis in cases with increased risk (i.e., pregnancy)

Rubella is typically diagnosed based on the characteristic appearance of the affected area in conjunction with clinical examination. Laboratory testing will be performed to confirm the diagnosis in cases which carry increased risk of complications, such as those involving pregnant women.

Treatment
*No specific treatment for the condition exists
*The condition is moderate in effect and self-resolving in the majority of cases
*Administration of acetaminophen and fluid maintenance are recommended

No specific treatment for Rubella exists. In the majority of cases the condition is moderate in effect and self-resolving, requiring only acetaminophen for fever and pain and maintaining proper fluid levels. Rubella vaccines result in extremely longterm immunity to the condition in most cases.

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